Detalles del proyecto

Visión general

Título del Proyecto


Programa País / Plan de Acción
Tender / Procurement notice
23 may 2020


23 mayo 2020

Fecha limite

29 mayo 2020


40 646 USD

Tipo de aprovisionamiento

Consultores individuales



Agencia de Financiación

ADB - Banco Asiático de Desarrollo

Duración estimada

6 meses


Afghanistan, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaiyán, Bangladesh, Bhután, Brunei Darussalam, Camboya, China, Islas Cook, Timor Oriental, Fiji, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Kazajstán, Kiribati, Corea del Sur, Kirguistán, Laos, Malasia, Maldivas, Marshall, Micronesia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Naurú, Nepal, Nueva Zelanda, Pakistán, Palau, Papúa Nueva Guinea, Filipinas, Samoa, Singapur, Salomón, Islas, Sri Lanka, Tayikistán, Tailandia, Tonga, Turkmenistán, Tuvalu, Uzbekistán, Vanuatu, Vietnam

Date Published: 23-May-2020 Deadline of Submitting EOI: 29-May-2020 11:59 PM Manila local time

Consultant Type Individual
Selection Method Individual Consultant Selection (ICS)
Source International
Technical Proposal Not Applicable

Selection Title Enhancing Governance and Capacity Development as Driver of Change


Advance Action No

Engagement Period 5.7 MONTH

Total Inputs 45 Working Days

Consulting Services Budget USD 45,000

Budget Type Estimated

Approval Number 9061
Approval Date 18-Dec-2015
Estimated Short-listing Date 01-Jun-2020
Estimated Commencement Date 08-Jun-2020

Open to non-Member Countries No

Additional Information

Possibility of consideration for downstream assignment Not known

Country of assignment Regional

Contract Type Full Lump-Sum
(Note: Type of contract information is indicative and might be subject to change.)

Other information
Consultant with no relevant experience need not apply.

Contact Information

Project Officer Hanif Rahemtulla
Designation Senior Public Management Specialist
Asian Development Bank


Primary Agency Country Agency Role Contact Person
Asian Development Bank Regional Executing Agency Hanif Rahemtulla
Asian Development Bank Regional Implementing Agency

Cost Estimate

Cost Items Amount in USD
Remuneration and Other Expenses
All activities and inputs in the TOR but not limited to remuneration, per diem, air travel, miscellaneous travel expenses, report preparation, production, and transmission, land transportation, communications, etc.40,646



Terms of Reference (Individual Consultant)

Expertise Infrastructure Governance - Fiscal Risk Management Specialist
Expertise Group Social & Political Science

Consultant Source International
TOR Keywords

Objective and Purpose of the Assignment

To prepare a research paper, focused on select Asian countries, that demonstrates how public investment
management and quality infrastructure performance directly impacts governments’ fiscal positions, and
what short-, medium- and longer-term reforms may be required to address this potentially very
substantial source of fiscal risk. Following ADB feedback and comments, the research paper will be
finalized and then converted into a PowerPoint presentation, to be delivered at an internal ADB
infrastructure Thematic Group workshop later in the year.

Many Asian-Pacific governments use traditional public procurement, infrastructure SOEs and PPPs as key
vehicles for financing their substantial infrastructure and public service delivery gaps. These
governments often provide very substantial direct and contingent support (typically credit and
investment guarantees) to facilitate infrastructure investment, covering sectors as diverse as power,
water, toll roads, airports, seaports, railways, waste management and telecoms.

While the direct costs of such support are often substantial, these are at least “above the line”, and
thus included in budgeted and forward estimate figures. Contingent costs, often in the form of
guarantees, on the other hand, are often poorly recognized, recorded and managed. Many Asian-Pacific
governments issue guarantees to facilitate private capital market financing of infrastructure
investments in order to free up fiscal space for other government-funded activities. While government
guarantees are often issued ostensibly to lower the cost of capital for infrastructure borrowing,
including that PPPs from private capital markets, many projects are operationally inefficient and
financially unsustainable and would not be bankable without such government support. While there is some
borrowing without government guarantees, this is typically through state-owned banks, thereby ensuring
the fiscal risks and contingent cost of such borrowing remains on government balance sheets. Where there
is borrowing from private capital markets without guarantees, this is because there is typically an
implicit government guarantee to back borrowing by government entities including SOEs. In this regard,
they are “too big, politically, to fail”, and that governments would step in if they could not meet
their debt obligations.

Simply because these contingent costs are not recognized nor recorded does not mean they will not
crystallize at some future date. In fact, since infrastructure investment projects are often structured
in ways that risks are not effectively managed, it is inevitable that at least a proportion of these
guarantees will be called.
The fiscal impact of these contingent costs can fly under the radar for some time. Fiscal shocks tend to
bring them to the surface. The COVID-19 pandemic represents such a fiscal shock. Even prior to the
pandemic, Asian-Pacific government balance sheets were constrained to sustain current levels of support
– direct and contingent – to infrastructure projects and meet existing obligations. Government balance
sheets are likely to be significantly impaired by their response to the pandemic. At the same time,
infrastructure investment projects’ financial positions will have deteriorated. The likely significant
impairment to Asian-Pacific balance sheets means they will have even less fiscal space to provide direct
and contingent support to infrastructure projects, just as projects may call upon such guarantees. This
occurs at a time when such investments could make a meaningful contribution to the post COVID-19
economic recovery but will not do so without improved governance and operational performance.

Scope of Work

The consultant is expected to undertake desk-top research and prepare (i) a research paper, and (ii) an
associated PPT presentation to be delivered as a webinar at an ADB infrastructure seminar.

Detailed Tasks and/or Expected Output

Specifically, the consultant will:

• Explain the “transmission mechanism” between quality infrastructure governance and performance, fiscal risk management and possible fiscal outcomes

• Provide evidence of such “transmission mechanisms” for select Asian-Pacific countries, including by
presenting data on:
a. Quality infrastructure governance arrangements
b. Debt levels, how these have grown over time
c. Extent of guarantees issued, and how these have grown over time
d. Mechanisms for government management of contingent liabilities relating to infrastructure investments
e. Where possible, quantification of fiscal risk and cost

• Present examples of best practice fiscal management of infrastructure quality governance, providing
examples for traditional public procurement, PPPs and SOEs

• Identify possible short-, medium- and longer-term reforms to more effectively manage the fiscal risks
and cost of public investment management and quality infrastructure performance.

Minimum Qualification Requirements

Internationally recruited specialist with at least 15 years of proven multilateral development bank or
related experience in (i) infrastructure policy and enabling environment including in Asia; (ii)
knowledge of legal, regulatory, institutional and fiscal sustainability framework for infrastructure;
(iii) capacity building of government staff in conceptualizing, developing, bidding, contracting,
implementing, and evaluating infrastructure projects; (iv) high level capacity to write research papers
and present documents on the enabling environment for infrastructure including QII; (v) client focus;
and (vi) ability to work in a multi-cultural environment.

Minimum General Experience 15 Years
Minimum Specific Experience (relevant to assignment) 15 Years
Regional/Country Experience Required

Schedule and Places of Assignment (chronological and inclusive of travel)

Schedule Type Intermittent
Max. Working Days/Week Home Office 5 Field 6

City and Country Working Days Estimated Start Date Estimated End Date
Home Office, Other 45 08-Jun-2020 30-Nov-2020

Total 45

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